# Hundred square in the number sequences research in the third grade of elementary school

Uršula Jaklič Žagar (2019) Hundred square in the number sequences research in the third grade of elementary school. MSc thesis.

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## Abstract

In the theoretical part of this Master’s Thesis, we present the development of the concept of numbers, the role of counting in developing number awareness, the development of number sense according to Piaget and the process of abstraction. We present the use of the hundred square as a teaching resource for teaching numbers up to 100, recurring issues in teaching numeric sequences, strategies in solving problems with learning numeric sequences and the benefits of the hundred square in solving exercises involving numeric sequences. We described objectives regarding development of number sense and numeric sequences in the Elementary School curriculum. The empirical part consists of a qualitative and a quantitative research. By means of a survey, we researched how teachers taught numeric sequences in the 3rd grade and whether they used the hundred square. We analysed for which curriculum objectives the hundred square was used. We conducted a qualitative research among the students, who wrote a test paper. We investigated the connection between the numerical perception and the solving of exercises in numeric sequences and whether the use of the hundred square had any influence on the success in solving exercises in numeric sequences. We have established that teachers often used the hundred square in teaching numbers up to 100, though not so often for teaching numeric sequences. Teachers, who see in it more advantages than disadvantages, predominantly perceive the hundred square as a good teaching resource. Only half of the teachers agree that the hundred square supports calculating up to 100 according to the pre-learnt algorithm. We were not able to prove the connection between the teacher’s length of service and the use of the hundred square. We determined that students with better numbers sense are also better in solving exercises concerning numeric sequences. Students solved linear and square sequences, and were better in solving linear sequences. They solved both types of sequences better when they were presented on the hundred square. According to the results of the survey on the use of the hundred square and the findings that students are better in solving sequences presented on the hundred square, we can conclude that teachers are insufficiently aware of the possibility of using the hundred square also for teaching numeric sequences.

Item Type: Thesis (MSc thesis)
Keywords: hundred square, number sense up to 100, solving mathematical problems, numeric sequences
Number of Pages: 90
Language of Content: Slovenian
Mentor / Comentors:
Mentor / ComentorsIDFunction
doc. dr. Vida Manfreda KolarMentor
Institution: University of Ljubljana
Department: Faculty of Education
Item ID: 5835
Date Deposited: 05 Jul 2019 10:23